#OTD in Irish History | 2 September:

1022 – Death of Maelsechlainn II, the great High King of Ireland.

1752 – The Gregorian calendar is adopted in Ireland and Britain, 170 years after mainland Europe: 2 September is followed by 14 September.

1731 – Birth of Sir Lucius O’Brien, opposition politician, once described as ‘a man who disagrees with the rest of mankind by thinking well of himself’.

1752 – The Gregorian calendar is adopted in Ireland and Britain, 170 years after mainland Europe: 2 September is followed by 14 September.

1784 – Sir Eyre Coote, the elder, dies of apoplexy at sea off Madras, while being pursued by French ships.

1865 – Death of Sir William Rowan Hamilton. He was an Irish physicist, astronomer, and mathematician, who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra. His studies of mechanical and optical systems led him to discover new mathematical concepts and techniques. His greatest contribution is perhaps the reformulation of Newtonian mechanics, now called Hamiltonian mechanics.

1893 – Second Home Rule Bill passed by House of Commons.

1919 – RIC Sergeant Brady shot and killed by IRA in Lorrha, Co Tipperary; trial collapses in 1920.

1922 – Republicans attack Macroom, Co Cork with men and a captured armoured car. They withdraw after a seven-hour fire fight.

1922 – Republicans attack National Army troops while they are drilling in front of the City Club in Cork city. They drive up in a lorry and open machine-gun fire on the Free State troops, killing two and injuring six.

1922 – Two National Army soldiers are killed in an ambush at Watergrass Hill, Co Cork.

1922 – There are also attacks by Anti-Treaty fighters on Free State troops in Dublin city centre and Tallaght and Rathfarnham in Co Dublin. In the city centre ambush, one civilian is killed, and a Free State soldier and a civilian are wounded. Two Free State soldiers are wounded in the attack in Rathfranham and the RIC barracks there is destroyed.

1922 – Three CID police are shot in an ambush at Dean Grange, Dublin, one later dies.

1922 – Anti-Treaty IRA members Leo Murray and Rodney Murphy, Deans Grange are shot in their beds at lodge house of Newpark Lodge, Stillorgan, Dublin. Another, John Joe Stephens, Bellek, Fermanagh is taken from his lodgings at 7 Gardiner Place and shot at Naas Road, Dublin, the following day. National Army or CID personnel are assumed to be responsible.

1933 – Cummann na nGaedheal, the Centre Party, and the National Guard, once known as the “Blueshirts”, join forces to form Fine Gael.

1935 – Birth of Liam Clancy. He was a folk singer and actor from Carrick-on-Suir, Co Tipperary. He was the youngest and last surviving member of performing group The Clancy Brothers. The group was regarded as Ireland’s first pop stars. They recorded 55 albums, achieving global sales of millions and appearing at a sold-out Carnegie Hall, New York and the Royal Albert Hall, London.

1939 – Enactment of First Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland. (The First Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland was effected by the First Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1939, and signed into law on 2 September 1939. Its purpose was to extend the constitutional definition of “time of war” to include a period during which a war is occurring in which the state is not a direct participant. Its intention was to allow the government to exercise emergency powers during World War II (known as The Emergency), despite the fact that the state was neutral. The amendment means that the state may exercise these powers provided the Oireachtas declares a “national emergency”.)

1939 – Irish government under Éamon de Valera declares an official State of Emergency. Generally referred to as “The Emergency,” it provided for sweeping powers for the government during the duration of World War II when Ireland maintained a neutral stance. Ironically, the legislation had the greatest impact on de Valera’s former colleagues who were still in the IRA (and now involved in violent acts against his government.) An estimated 2,000 IRA men were interned in the Curragh Camp during the duration of the war.

1942 – IRA Volunteer, Tom Williams, is hanged at Belfast’s Crumlin Road Jail.

1951 – Tipperary soundly defeat Wexford in the All Ireland final in front of 70,000 fans at Croke Park, 7-7 to 3-3.

1956 – Birth of Angelo Fusco in Belfast. He is a former volunteer in the Belfast Brigade of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) who escaped during his 1981 trial for killing an Special Air Service (SAS) officer in 1980.

1998 – Sinn Féin formally nominate Mid-Ulster MP Martin McGuinness as its representative to work with the International Commission on Decommissioning.

2001 – Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, John Reid, restored devolved powers to the Northern Ireland Assembly at midnight.

2002 – Ireland forms an alliance with Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Greece in a bid to limit the expansion of nuclear energy.

2002 – A Commission which includes loyalist paramilitaries calls on republican terror groups to join them in achieving calm along sectarian flashpoint areas.

Image | Dunluce Castle and Mermaid’s Cave, Bushmills, Antrim Coast | Gareth Wray Photography

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