Today in Irish History: 11 December…

1225 – Laurence O’Toole is canonised by Pope Honorius III. It will be 750 years before another Irish person is canonised.

1650 – Ormond leaves for France, leaving Ulick Burke, 1st Marquis of Clanrickard, as Lord Deputy.

1853 – Birth of H. Kingsmill Moore, educationist.

1905 – Birth of Erskine Childers, Ireland’s fourth president (1973-1974).

1920 – Martial law is declared in Ireland. Black and Tans and Auxiliaries go on a rampage of burning and looting in Cork.

1931 – Statute of Westminster is passed by British Parliament giving Dominion parliaments, including the Free State, equal status of the Imperial Parliament at Westminster.

1936 – In the wake of the abdication of Edward VIII, the Dáil passes legislation removing the King from the Irish Constitution and abolishing the position of Governor General.

1936 – Abdication Crisis: Edward VIII’s abdication as King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India becomes effective.

1956 – The Irish Republican Army (IRA) begins what it calls “The Campaign of Resistance to British Occupation”; it is also known as the ‘Border Campaign’. As a result of the campaign, Internment is introduced in both Northern Ireland and the Republic. The campaign ends on 26 February 1962 because of lack of support.

1971 – Balmoral Furniture Company bombing – a bomb exploded outside a furniture showroom on the mainly-Protestant and loyalist Shankill Road, Belfast. Four civilians (including two babies) were killed and nineteen wounded. The IRA was blamed.

1979 – Charles Haughey is elected Taoiseach.

1998 – Taoiseach Bertie Ahern and British Prime Minister Tony Blair meet in Vienna; they fail to find new ways of breaking the deadlock in the row over implementing the Good Friday Agreement.

2001 – Customs and gardaí board a container ship in Dundalk, Co. Louth and seize up to 80 million smuggled cigarettes – the most in State history.

2002 – The replica famine ship, the Jeanie Johnston, arrives in Dublin after final fittings in Cork.

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