The Catholic Convention was a representative body of 231 delegates who met in Dublin to prepare a petition calling for the repeal of the remaining Penal Laws in Ireland. They presented their petition directly to the King rather they sending it through the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
The Penal Laws were put into place in Ireland in 1607 by King James I. Some of the restrictions put on Catholics:
-They could not hold public office or serve in the army
-They had to pay ‘recusant fines’ for non-attendance to Anglican services
-All Roman Catholic churches were turned over to the Church of England-though Catholic mass could still be said, it had to be in private, not in the churches
-They could not own land or firearms
-For the Catholics that already owned land after their death the land had to be divided equally among all of the owners sons unless the eldest son had converted to Protestantism
-Catholics were also not allowed to teach
-After the Irish Rebellion of 1641 the major Catholic landholders that had maintained their positions in society had their lands and titles confiscated and the Catholic clergy was expelled from the country
Over time these laws were relaxed and repealed through the Catholic Relief Acts. Complete Catholic Emancipation was not granted until 1829.